I cannot fathom the topic that objects are capable of blogging in web 2.0 – it seems bizarrare and ridicule-worthy. Brad the toaster goes off to cry as his users use other toasters more and he tweets about? Yeah, alright Teodor.
The argument is that these objects are at an advantage because, ‘as an IoT-based sociable object he is connected not only to his immediate surroundings, but also to a potentially enormous number of other heteroclites. When fully assembled, Brad’s ‘list of appearances’ is perhaps longer, more intricate, and more intense, than that of many humans.’ [Mitew, 2014]
Blogjects (objects that blog) are the new things with the special characteristic of being involved in idea-exchanging – they have ‘contained (embedded) histories of their encounters and experience… (and) have a form of agency.’ [Bleecker, 2006]
If so, then is my phone inserting itself into my twitter,downloaded inside it, and tweeting about fatigue as a result of constant use?
Bleecker, J. (2006). A Manifesto for Networked Objects — Cohabiting with Pi- geons, Arphids and Aibos in the Internet of Things. [online] Available at: http://nearfuturelaboratory.com/files/WhyThingsMatter.pdf [Accessed 17 Oct. 2018].
Do objects dream of an internet of things?. (2014). The Fibreculture Journal.
Lulzsec is made from the two words, ‘lol’ and ‘security’. They leak profiles, plant fake stories, attack networks, steal customer’s data and ‘phone bomb’ companies – with an intention was to “gain attention, embarrass website owners and ridicule security measures” [Arthur, 2013]. They stand out as members never meet and are the very definition of a globalised hacking system.
On the topic of hacking, ‘Zero-days’ are attacks that focus on “hardware vulnerability… and attackers release malware before a developer has an opportunity to create a patch.” [FireEye, nd] Ulasen’s research team’s client was attacked by ‘zero-day’ and the exploit clearvely spread through USBs to every computer that made contact with the USB. (see: Zetter, 2011)
There has recently been a cyber war between Syrian Electronic Army and famous hacker group, Anonymous. They attack eachother’s assets and the war has been going on for so long that it ponders the question:
Who’s going to be using ‘zero-day’ first?
Zetter, K. (2011). How Digital Detectives Deciphered Stuxnet, the Most Menacing Malware in History. [online] WIRED. Available at: https://www.wired.com/2011/07/how-digital-detectives-deciphered-stuxnet/ [Accessed 12 Oct. 2018].
“Transparency in a government leads to a reduced corruption,” Assange boldly states.
The founder of WikiLeaks is no-one extraordinary yet in December 2006, he released WikiLeaks first document, ‘Secret Decision’. It contained the prompt of executing government officials by hiring criminals as hit men.
Assange is not a journalist nor a spy, he ‘emphasized that his mission is to expose injustice, not to prove an even-handed record of events.’ [Khatchadourian, 2010].
Assange himself doesn’t have a permanent home and WikiLeaks volunteers come from all over the world. Despite constantly receiving legal threats, removing content on WikiLeaks would be adjacent to dismantling the whole Internet so it’s almost ‘other-worldly’.
But its not. Timothy C. May’s 1992 screed, The Crypto Anarchist Manifesto, discusses ‘wacky data-obsessed subversives get(ting) up to all kinds of globalized mischief without any fear of repercussion from the blinkered authorities.’ [Sterling, 2013]. It reminds us that it’s more realistic to see WikiLeaks as a manifestation of something already growing before it.
Khatchadourian, R. (2010). What Does Julian Assange Want?. [online] The New Yorker. Available at: https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2010/06/07/no-secrets [Accessed 30 Sep. 2018].
Sterling, B. (2013). The Blast Shack – Bruce Sterling – Medium. [online] Medium. Available at: https://medium.com/@bruces/the-blast-shack-f745f5fbeb1c [Accessed 30 Sep. 2018].
The millenial web has created a new world for protesting and social media has become key platforms for ‘coordinating protest activities and sharing information’. [Bohdanova, 2013] Social media informs wider audiences and gives participants the ability to be involved with minimal effort. Despite Gladwill (see: Popova, 2010) arguing that it creates ‘slacktivism’ and provides ‘weak ties’, evidence shows a rise in awareness and action.
Social media allows for support to be given to protestors- often they are provided with food or medical support and entertainment through concerts and activities.
The Internet is a powerful way to stand up as a community.
#MeToo movement spread as people started coming out of their quiet corners to be a voice of people who had dealt with sexual abuse. It continues to stand strongly but it ‘risks losing direction if social media sites and users become dominant as its megaphone to the masses.’ (Donlon, 2018)
Adding on to that, Morozov (2011) stated that researchers’ interest in the technology-controlled political change decreases because social media increased protest spontaneity and a neutral view is unlikely.
Users have gradually left traditional media behind for social media news, and ‘studies have shown, that Daily Show viewers are… better informed about the U.S. political process as those who continue to follow mainstream print or television news’. [Bruns, n.d] Journalists would undergo gatekeeping that filtered out unimportant, uninteresting or irrelevant content and controlled the high level of content to a coherent summary of important details.
Where traditional news outlets is one-to-many, social media passes news convergently from many-to-many – incorporating the theory of ‘one-to-many-to-many’. Social media accentuates journalism, adding a layer of interaction and communication but it also leaks information before any newspaper can coherently create an article about it (e.g. Michael Jackson’s death broke out on social media before any major news outlet).
Twitter is a grand platform for discussions and providing information about others without the prompt of asking. Real-time discussions are often followed by hashtags that allowed the discussion to exceed time and place leading to a diverse polarisation; “we all started talking, and.. a shadow conversation unfolded on the screen.” (see: Johnson, 2009)
People will also start looking for their information from relevant Twitter users rather than using Google.
But Twitter’s ongoing issues include Facebook, a platform for personal sharing and connecting, gradually becoming a place to find news despite the 21% decline in personal sharing. (Hutchinson, 2016)
Bruns, A. (n.d.). New Directions for e-Journalism. News Blogs and Citizen Journalism.
Johnson, S. (2018). How Twitter Will Change the Way We Live. TIME.
Saxena, S. (2018). 7 key differences between Social Media and Traditional Media –. [online] Easymedia.in. Available at: http://www.easymedia.in/7-differences-social-media-traditional-media/ [Accessed 17 Sep. 2018].
Apple’s controlled programming influenced hackers to begin running new apps, resulting in Apple alternating from disabling jailbroken phones to launching the App store in order to allow creation on the basis that it was reviewed by Apple first.
Before the gatekeeping began, ‘I Am Rich’ was a $999,99 app bought by eight people that shut down after press ridicule.
‘Freedom Time,’ an app counting down until Bush’s US presidency termination was also never released as it was a political injustice.
In 2005, Andy Rubin had given Larry Page a collaboration pitch of creating a phone with Google as it’s main search engine. Google was bought for $50 million and thus began Android, ‘a free, open source mobile platform that any coder could write for and any handset maker could install.’ [Roth, 2008] Page didn’t care about the creation of individual models as long as the ‘Android DNA’ would maintain.
Around then, Linus Torvalds had improved on a developer’s idea to create Linux and incorporated bazaar style programming (shallow bugs built on by eager co-developers), as he believed that once a developer lost interest, they should give their idea for someone else to continue the enhancing process. He ‘start(ed) from individual vision and brilliance, then amplif(ied) it through the selective construction of voluntary communities of interest,’ [Raymond, 2011] and it took him much farther than had he started from scratch.
Open-sources (see: link) permit geniuses that do not have access to closed-sources to create advanced programming to advance softwares.
My partner goes through Android and Apple:
Hill, S. (2018). Android vs. iOS: Which smartphone platform is the best?. [online] Digital Trends. Available at: https://www.digitaltrends.com/mobile/android-vs-ios/amp/ [Accessed 19 Sep. 2018].
Prakash, A. (2018). 6 Open Source Mobile OS Alternatives To Android in 2018 | It’s FOSS. [online] It’s FOSS. Available at: https://itsfoss.com/open-source-alternatives-android/ [Accessed 19 Sep. 2018].
Raymond, E. (2001). The Cathedral and the Bazaar. pp.1-31.
Roth, D. (2008). Google’s Open Source Android OS Will Free the Wireless Web. [online] WIRED. Available at: https://www.wired.com/2008/06/ff-android/?currentPage=all [Accessed 19 Sep. 2018].
Modern cyberspaces are mostly absent of rules, leading to different embodiments ofownership and a blooming generation. Richard Stallman introduced the idea of a free software, available to all and allows ‘those who understand the code (to) modify and adapt it to new purposes, and then share it further.’ [Zittrain, 2008]
‘The key to success was the brilliance of the differences.’ [Lessig, n.d]
Following on my last blog post regarding copyright, Disney added to previous creative works (that were in the public domain) with his own addition – sound. Music was being produced by artists that could not see the screen. At first, it sounded awkward but it was new and thus, exciting and electric.
Doujinshi is a category of anime where artists build on original characters; contribution by transformation. This is similar to early American cartoon, as that’s how artists learned how to draw but now it is considered illegal. There are various reasons as to why Doujinshi is still legal, amongst them is: respect for ameteur artists, maintaining a good identity, free advertising and most importantly, Doujinshi is considered a ‘parody’ rather than a ‘counterfeit’. (See: Richey, 2016)
Below is my doujinshi remediation, I alternated the original context by controlling the subtitles:
Lessig, L. (n.d.). Free Culture – Chapter One: Creators. [online] Authorama.com. Available at: http://www.authorama.com/free-culture-4.html [Accessed 31 Aug. 2018].
Richey, M. (2016). JAPAN’S DOUJINSHI CULTURE OF CREATIVITY THROUGH THEFT. [online] Tofugu.com. Available at: https://www.tofugu.com/japan/doujinshi-definition/ [Accessed 31 Aug. 2018].
Stallman, R. (n.d.). Why Software Should Be Free- GNU Project – Free Software Foundation. [online] Gnu.org. Available at: https://www.gnu.org/philosophy/shouldbefree.en.html [Accessed 1 Sep. 2018].
Zittrain, J. (2008). The Future of the Internet—And How to Stop It » Chapter 6: The Lessons of Wikipedia. [online] Yupnet.org. Available at: http://yupnet.org/zittrain/2008/03/16/chapter-6-the-lessons-of-wikipedia/ [Accessed 1 Sep. 2018].